Bladder cancer accounts for about 3% of all cancers and, in urology, is second only to prostate cancer. It is most common between the ages of 60 and 70 and is three times more common in men than in women.
At diagnosis, bladder cancer is superficial in 85% of cases and infiltrative in 15%. The five-year survival rate in Europe is higher for men (European age-standardized 5-year relative survival 69%) than for women (66%).
Bladder Cancer increasing risks’ factors:
The symptoms of bladder cancer are common to other diseases of the urinary tract. Frequent symptoms are blood in the urine (haematuria) and the formation of clots, a burning sensation in the bladder when the abdomen is squeezed, difficulty and pain when urinating, and increased susceptibility to infections. As the disease progresses, these complaints can become important.
Bladder cancer can spread locally and distantly by lymphatics, first to the lymph nodes and then via the bloodstream to the lungs, liver and bones.
Its behaviour is not always predictable in terms of relapse, aggressiveness and metastasis.
The treatment approach today, however, involves combined interventions, which may involve surgery, chemotherapy or immunotherapy and radiotherapy in various combinations
Survival of patients with bladder cancer is increased by treating them early with immunotherapy (Atezolizumab) along with chemotherapy
There are currently no scientifically reliable screening programmes or early detection methods. Even urinary cytology can give false negatives if tumour cells are difficult to distinguish from healthy cells.
Preventive measures linked to lifestyle habits should therefore be implemented, consisting of smoking cessation, a healthy, balanced diet and surveillance of workers at risk.