Lesson 5 Cardiovascular diseases 

After this lesson you will know about:

  • What Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are
  • What the risk factor of CVD are
  • What you can do to prevent CVD


  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels.
  • It’s usually associated with a build-up of fatty deposits inside the arteries (atherosclerosis) and an increased risk of blood clots.
  • It can also be associated with damage to arteries in organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes.


  • Familiar History
  • High blood pressure
  • High Colesterol  
  • Diabetes
  • Inactivity
  • Wrong Diet (an unhealthy diet can lead to high cholesterol and high blood pressure)
  • Obesity  (especially abdominal fat)
  • Age  (CVD is most common in people over 50 and your risk of developing it increases as you get older)
  • Gender (more common in male than female)
  • Alcohol


If you have a family history of CVD, your risk of developing it is also increased. You’re considered to have a family history of CVD if either:

  • your father or brother were diagnosed with CVD before they were 55
  • your mother or sister were diagnosed with CVD before they were 65

Tell your doctor or nurse if you have a family history of CVD. They may suggest checking your blood pressure and cholesterol level.

One of the worst consequences of cardiovascular disease is HEART ATTACK. It is important to recognise the symptoms of heart attack at early stage. If you experience one of these symptoms, urgently call your doctor!

Symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • Pain or discomfort in the centre of the chest; and/or
  • Pain or discomfort in the arms, the left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back.

In addition the person may experience difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath; nausea or vomiting;  light-headedness or faintness; a cold sweat; and turning pale. 

Women are more likely than men to have shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and back or jaw pain.

Regardless of your overall weight, having a large amount of fat concentrated in your BELLY increases  A LOT your risk of Cardiovascular Diseases, Type 2 diabetes. A larger waist measurement can mean too much visceral fat. This is the fat stored around internal organs like your liver and pancreas.

We recommend  you  to measure your waist size!

How much should your waist measure? 

In general, for MEN:

a waist circumference below 94cm  is ‘low risk’, between  94–102cm (37-40in) is ‘high risk’ and more than 102cm (40in) is ‘very high risk.



Watch this video to learn more about heart disease prevention ! Read the comments under the video to learn more!  What does it say about “stress”?

Congratulations! What have you learned?

  • Describe (roughly) the Male Reproductive System Anatomy and Function
  • Distinguish between reliable and non reliable methods of contraception
  • Distinguish between serious and common diseases of the Male Reproductive apparatus
  • Identify  the behavioural risks associated to the diseases of the Male Reproductive apparatus
  • Identify the good habits that would help you to prevent some of the pathologie you have learned about